Once a female began laying eggs, spawning extended through to the beginning of senescence. We therefore did not seek institutional approval. This observation supports observations from the 1970’s that conspicuous prey remains were not found near dens in the wild. Males typically died one to two weeks after they abruptly ceased feeding (though three weeks in one case). In cases when air bubbles were trapped in barnacles and conch shells used for dens (as occurred sometimes during tank cleaning), octopuses turned the shells over, which removed the air bubbles, before entering. Octopus zonatus, another Harlequin octopus, bears body patterning similar to O. chierchiae [2]. A, B, D, E, G, H by RLC; C, F by RR. Unique behaviors like beak-to-beak mating, den co-occupancy by a mating pair, extended spawning, and unique prey-capture were observed in captive larger Pacific striped octopus. The largest specimen of this species to be scientifically documented was an animal with a live mass of 71 kg (156.5 lb). Modes of locomotion follow those outlined previously [22]. For this week’s homework, read “Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus” by Caldwell et al. Conceived and designed the experiments: RLC RR AR CH. Biol., 28 (2018), pp. Some species chase their prey, some ambush their prey and others stalk their pray quietly until they can pounce on them. 2015 Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. In octopuses, females can mate with two males simultaneously (one per oviduct), and in some cases more males try to mate with the female than she has oviducts available (Octopus cyanea [42]; Vulcanoctopus hydrothermalis [43]; Octopus kaurna [21], Octopus bimaculoides [32]). Larger Pacific Striped Octopuses mate in a beak-to-beak position, as if kissing. Citation: Caldwell RL, Ross R, Rodaniche A, Huffard CL (2015) Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, California, United States of America. File:Behavior-and-Body-Patterns-of-the-Larger-Pacific-Striped-Octopus-pone.0134152.s002.ogv. However, thus far no observations have been designed to verify this behavioral aspect of LPSO. Other resolutions: 320 × 180 pixels | 640 × 360 pixels | 854 × 480 pixels. Mating individuals also frequently grappled arms, females jetted water at males through the funnel, and females pushed males away. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus At the appearance of eyespots, most embryos were oriented in the capsule in the proximal orientation, with eyespots closest to the stalk. 8. Figure 1 Solitary and social cephalopods. Photographs were taken of animals in aquaria with a variety of camera gear. Senescent males and females typically sat with mantle and head in the den, and the oral surface, beak and suckers exposed (Fig 3C). These dens were PVC tubes with more than one opening. Aug. 12, 2015 — When the larger Pacific striped octopus was first observed in the 1970s, its unusual social and mating behavior were so strange that no one would publish it. Along with Octopus chierchiae Jatta, 1889 and Octopus zonatus Voss, 1968 from the Western Atlantic and Caribbean [2], LPSO is one of the ‘Harlequin’ octopuses identified by their semi-permanent stripes and spots [3]. In the laboratory, individuals occupied dens of a variety of natural (shells of Nautilus, Strombus, and the barnacle Conchylepes) and artificial (terra cotta flower pots, glass bottles, custom blown glass, PVC tubes 3, 3.8 and 5 cm diameter) materials. 2015. No damaging injures occurred. Smaller white spots corresponding to the raised portions of granular skin texture were visible on the dorso-lateral surfaces of the arms (Fig 2F). In all other cases the male-female pair completed mating undisturbed. For this week’s homework, read “Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus” by Caldwell et al. Octopus body color patterns and textures are determined by the presence, location, and pigment composition of fixed anatomical structures and muscles in the skin [7]. One female did not move for three to four weeks before dying. Rather than depositing spermatophores for external sperm storage as in decapods, male octopuses place spermatophores internally in the oviducts of the female, which is located inside the mantle and not within reach of male flushing via jetting [33,40]. Papillae shape was conical rather than flap-like or branched. They are mostly solitary creatures though reports have demonstrated some few anomalies where groups of up to 40 octopuses live together. One female was observed to have eggs in both a den and on the walls of the plastic container and would carry the den with her, over her mantle, to tend both sets of eggs. In each of these cases the female was initially kept in her den in a plastic container with the top removed, and the male was allowed access to the entire aquarium. Octopus are often solitary, but the female Larger Pacific Striped Octopus sometimes shared her den with the male she was mating with. 2015 Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. Copulation was never seen during these feeding events, but occurred at other times. adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A 2015. Although mentioned only briefly, early accounts of this octopus based on field collections and groups housed in large tanks listed intriguing behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Habitat information from the collector is also provided. Passing cloud [23] was not observed. Males were observed to move into different dens at irregular intervals, and would sometimes forgo a den all together, roaming the aquarium or settling in the upper corners of the tank. In a paper published in this issue of Current Biology, Edsinger and Dölen have moved the study of social behavior in octopus into the lab. LPSO appeared to exhibit head-first swimming primarily when approaching prey, or when males approached a female to mate. Posted August 30, 2018 by UCMP Author: Rodaniche, Arcadio F. Search this Object Type: Smithsonian staff publication Electronic document Year: 1991 Topic: Tropics Search this Biology Search this Data source: Smithsonian Libraries EDAN-URL: edanmdm:SILSRO_104731. Yes In 2012–2014 regardless of den type used in captivity, females moved into dens and laid eggs inside. However LPSO lacks the flap-like primary papillae in a diamond configuration on the mantle, and dark arm stripes along the dorsolateral edge of arms typically found in Amphioctopus. Instead, crabs were captured when LPSO pounced on them directly. before the start of the next class. This female was observed to build a small rounded mound of sand around the den entrance, sometimes burying the entrance to the den (15 to 31 cm in diameter, up to 5 cm deep in the center). When males and females were introduced to observe mating and other reproductive behavior, the animals were closely monitored and at any sign of aggression the animals were immediately separated. No animals were euthanized. LPSO occupies regions with a soft mud substrate, or a mix of mud and sand. In the 1970’s, three females were captured by trawl with what might have been their eggs on the inside of gastropod shells (1—Ficus ventricosa, 2—Malea ringens). The second brooding female accepted matings on three occasions, but rejected attempts by two different males. by Richard Ross on Scribd Mating, birth, larval development and settlement of Bargibant’s pygmy seahorse, Hippocampus bargibanti (Syngnathidae), in aquaria When hunting shrimp, a dorsal arm (always arm LI or RI) was extended in an arched fashion and curled at the tip to expose the suckers outward (see Hunting and feeding below; Fig 3A and 3B; S5 Movie). View Record in Scopus Google Scholar. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134152.g001. Behavioral and biological similarities with Octopus chierchiae are numerous [6] and could possibly be attributed to close phylogenetic relationships (Wright, Caldwell, Ross unpublished data). The larger Pacific striped octopus stalks a shrimp. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Unique behaviors like beak-to-beak mating, den co-occupancy by a mating pair, extended spawning, and unique prey-capture were observed in captive larger Pacific striped octopus. However, a few embryos were situated with the eyes distal to the stalk, which did not appear to be part of the turning process, because it happened so early in development. The Larger Pacific Striped Octopus, together with its close relative, Octopus chierchiae, or more commonly known as the Lesser Pacific Striped Octopus, are considered “harlequin” octopuses due to their appearance. All photos by RLC. It was not possible to record numbers of eggs laid each day as different groups of eggs were laid next to and among each other. This paper can be found in “Homework Papers” in Course Documents on Blackboard. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. We thank Lukas Jansen of Livan, Jansen & Cia. However, with the exception of LPSO, this mating position appears to be absent among octopuses. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. While their behavior and neurobiology have been extensively studied, most research is based on observations of just a handful of the more than 300 species of octopus worldwide. Stripe-bar-spot could vary bilaterally (Fig 2B; S2 Movie). During mating, females often enveloped the male either partially (Fig 4B) or fully into the web, with the male’s arms bent backward over his mantle. The aggregation found in Nicaragua in 2012 appears to have persisted for longer than two years. These rejections by the second female might have taken place during early senescence. All specimens originated from the same collector from one location in Nicaragua. Is the Subject Area "Octopus" applicable to this article? Octopus briareus Robson is a common octopod in the tropical W. Atlantic weighing up to 1500 g and measuring 1 m. It can be easily reared on a small scale for research purposes in open and closed systems, and these methods may be applicable for mariculture on a larger scale. Caldwell, Roy L., et al. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0134152 Copy DOI. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. Beak-to-beak mating might limit access to a mating female to one male at a time because she has one buccal area, a situation that might confer competitive mating advantages in this group-living species. When observed, this behavior did not last more than a few minutes, and typically preceded mating. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Ancon, Panamá, Rep. of Panamá, Affiliations Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. When brooding females mated, the beak-to-beak position permitted the female to remain in the brooding area with the oral surface facing the male and her mantle facing the eggs. Back in the 1970’s, a biologist discovered what he believed to be a new octopus species. 6 Larger Pacific Striped Octopus Arm Twirling . Dr. Arcadio Rodaniche initially mentioned the species in a paper back in 1977 and published a full description of the species in 1991. Eyespots were yellow-orange in color. This pose was held for 5–10 minutes, during which several of the arms of each animal would line up sucker to sucker (as with the non-feeding individuals in Fig 4C). Octopus briareus Robson is a common octopod in the tropical W. Atlantic weighing up to 1500 g and measuring 1 m. ... and these methods may be applicable for mariculture on a larger scale. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. One female spawned continuously for six months and brooded for a total of eight months. Dorso-ventrally compressed swimming and bipedal walking [29] were not observed. Multiple occupancy of a den was not observed for the Female/Female/Male group sharing a tank. Science Friday: The Strangely Social Life of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus; Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus; Penn’s Sunday School: Octopodes and the Cephs, and Laws Make Weasels; How male octopuses avoid being eaten by hungry females; Social Octopus Species Shatters Beliefs About Ocean Dwellers Large-scale population density and sex ratios are not known. 2015. Many octopuses are known to have an ecologically clumped distribution according to habitat features or resources (e.g. The beak-to-beak mating posture is similar to the head-to-head mating posture typical in decapod cephalopods (squids and cuttlefishes; [32,33]), especially those that mate directly beak-to-beak (e.g. 2015; 10: e0134152. The hectocotylus groove was visible as an unpigmented line along the dorsolateral edge of the third right arm. We have no direct evidence that the beak-to-beak mating and feeding postures by LPSO confer specific advantages, although we speculate on three non-mutually exclusive hypotheses: allowing for females to maintain their brooding-typical posture while mating and/or eating, allowing for simultaneous feeding by a mating male and female pair, and limitation of mating access to females. Answer the following questions and submit them to Blackboard before the start of the next class. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus Lpso Behavior Paperjournal…. Behavior-and-Body-Patterns-of-the-Larger-Pacific-Striped-Octopus-pone.0134152.s006.ogv ‎ (Ogg Theora video file, length 1 min 34 s, 600 × 400 pixels, 1.49 Mbps) New York: Penguin Group, 2013. Behavior-and-Body-Patterns-of-the-Larger-Pacific-Striped-Octopus-pone.0134152.s001.ogv ‎ (Ogg Theora video file, length 25 s, 640 × 360 pixels, 727 kbps) Between April 2012 and August 2014 a total of 24 individuals (13 males and 11 females) were hand-collected on SCUBA and obtained from commercial aquarium wholesalers [Quality Marine (18), Live Aquaria (1), Russo’s Reef (4) and Sea Logic (1)]. A pair of larger Pacific striped octopus, or LPSOs, separate after mating. Posted August 30, 2018 by UCMP The beak-to-beak posture might facilitate mating with females that are brooding, but still likely to lay more eggs. 6 Larger Pacific Striped Octopus Arm Twirling Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, United States of America, Two females were introduced to males while brooding. Additional individuals have been collected in Guatemala (Smithsonian Institution Invertebrate Zoology USNM 817793, a single individual incorrectly identified as Octopus spilotus) and Magdelena Bay, Baja Sur, Mexico (Dr. Gustavo Hinojosa Arango, personal communication). Despite the potential interest of these unusual behaviors to cephalopod biologists, 25 years ago a full ethological description was rejected and the original observations never resubmitted for publication. 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